(All years are A.D.)
Robert Bruce, Lord of Cleveland in England, is granted huge tracts of land in Scotland and becomes the 1st Lord of Annandale, establishing the Bruce estates and patents of nobility in Scotland.
Exact date uncertain – Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale, marries Isabel, daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon and grandson of King David I, establishing the Bruce claim to the throne of Scotland.
Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick and future king, is born on July 11
Margaret, Maid of Norway, 6-year-old granddaughter of King Alexander III and heir to the throne of Scotland, dies while travelling by ship to Scotland, leaving the throne empty.
John Balliol becomes King of Scots, as chosen by Edward I of England. Edward I would become known in history as the Hammer of the Scots.
Robert the Bruce, future king, marries Isabella of Mar.
Daughter Marjorie Bruce is born; Isabella dies in childbirth.
Balliol abdicates the throne.
Scots, under William Wallace, defeat English army at Battle of Stirling Bridge.
Robert the Bruce appointed one of the guardians of Scotland, along with John Comyn
Robert the Bruce resigns as guardian.
Robert the Bruce submits to Edward I of England, gains a short truce, and marries Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and friend and supporter of Edward I.
Robert the Bruce’s father, Robert Bruce of Annandale, dies.
February – Robert the Bruce slays his rival for the throne, John Comyn at Greyfriars hurch, Dumfries.
March 25 – Robert the Bruce crowned King of Scots at Scone.
King Robert I defeated at Battles of Methven, Dail Righ. He flees to Rathlin.
The King’s brother, Nigel, is captured at Kildrummy Castle and executed. The King’s wife, daughter, and sisters are captured at Tain.
King Robert I returns to Scotland, begins guerilla war. Defeats English armies at Glen Trool and Loudon Hill.
Two of the King’s remaining brothers, Alexander and Thomas, are captured at Galloway and executed.
Edward I of England dies, succeeded by his son, Edward II, who was also known as Edward of Carnarvon.
Victories at the Battles of Inverurie and Brander by King Robert I against two of his Scottish rivals begins the process of uniting Scotland.
King Robert I controls all of Scotland north of the Tay River.
St. Andrews Parliament convened. The Parliament proclaims Scottish independence and King Robert I as the rightful king.
Peace talks with Edward II end with no agreement. Edward II invades Scotland.
War continues. King Robert I begins raids in northern England while Edward II continues his campaign in Scotland.
King Robert I takes Perth, Dumfries, and Isle of Man.
June 23 – King Robert’s brother Edward gives one-year respite to the English holding Stirling Castle, foreshadowing what would be the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.
Scots take Roxburgh and Edinburgh castles, leaving Stirling as the only strategic castle
still in English hands
still in English hands
June 23-24 – Battle of Bannockburn. King Robert I leads a decisive victory over Edward II’s army. Edward II flees to Berwick and then to England.
Captured English noblemen exchanged for the return of the King’s wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. In addition, the exchange included his daughter Marjorie, his sister Christina, and others.
Act of Succession names Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert I, successor to King Robert I absent any male issue of the King.
Marjorie Bruce marries Sir Walter Stewart.
Edward Bruce invades Ireland.
A pregnant Marjorie Bruce is severely injured in a riding accident. Marjorie dies from her injuries after giving birth to Robert Stewart prematurely, who later becomes Robert II of Scotland.
Edward Bruce crowned High King of Ireland.
King Robert I goes to Ireland to aid his brother Edward.
Scots take Berwick from English.
October 14 – King Edward of Ireland, brother of King Robert I, killed in battle at Dundalk, Ireland.
Young Robert Stewart is declared the successor to King Robert I absent any male issue of the King.
Edward II invades Scotland and begins siege of Berwick. By the end of the year, a two-year truce is agreed to.
April 6 – the Declaration of Arbroath is sent to Pope John XXII. This letter acknowledges that the nobility and clergy of Scotland proclaim the independence of Scotland and King Robert I as the rightful king. It beseeches the Pope to recognize the same.
The two-year truce ends, and Edward II again leads an expedition to Scotland while King Robert I invades northern England.
Treaty negotiations result in a 13-year truce.
The Pope recognizes King Robert I as King of the Scots.
March 5 – Elizabeth, Queen Consort of Scots, gives birth to a male heir, David Bruce.
David Bruce declared the successor to King Robert I with remainder to Robert Stewart.
Edward II deposed as king of England. Edward III crowned.
Scots break truce by attacking Norham. Edward III retaliates. English defeated at Stanhope Park by Douglas and Randolph. Edward III withdraws to York. King Robert I invades Northumberland. Peace negotiations begin.
October 27 – Elizabeth, Queen Consort of Scots, dies after falling from a horse.
Treaty of Edinburgh restores peace. Four-year-old David Bruce is wed to Joan of the Tower, sister of Edward III, as part of the treaty.
June 7 – King Robert I dies. He is buried at Dunfermline Abbey, but, according to the King’s wishes, his heart is sent with Douglas on a Crusade to the Holy Land.
March 25 – Douglas dies in Spain. King Robert’s heart, having not made it to the Holy Land, is returned to Scotland and buried at Melrose Abbey in 1330 or 1331.
November 24 – David Bruce crowned King of Scots, rules as King David II.
February 22 – King David II dies with no heir. He is the last Bruce king. He is succeeded by his nephew, Robert Stewart, the first Stewart king, who ruled as King Robert II.
Sources: Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, Ronald McNair Scott, 1982.
Robert Bruce & the Community of the Realm of Scotland, Geoffrey W. S. Barrow,